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When I was in Northwestern Pennsylvania, I had the privilege of meeting members of the Eighth Pennsylvania Re-enactors. The original Eighth Pennsylvania’s leadership where the ones who signed the treaty with the Lenape.

When I was researching my book A Coward’s Solace, I discovered that the first American treaty with the Indians were between the Lenape or Delaware I decided to share this story this week as my focus for Native American History Month. I wrote about it at the end of my book A Coward’s Solace.

The Treaty with the Delaware, signed on September 17, 1778, at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), was the first formal written treaty between the new United States of America and any Native Americans. This treaty gave the United States permission to travel through Delaware territory and required the Delaware to allow American troops whatever aid they required in their war against Britain, including warrior support. What the Delaware and our story’s naïve protagonists did not know was that the United States planned an attack on the British fort at Detroit, and Lenape friendship was essential for that campaign’s success.

In exchange for the Delaware support, the United States promised to provide clothing, utensils, and weapons. They offered to build a fort in Delaware country with the promise that fort would provide safety for their women, elderly, and children while the warriors fought any common enemy. Although it was not specifically stated in the written treaty, the American Government assumed that along with their French allies, the Delaware would become active participants with the Americans against the British.

The Delaware, on the other hand, assumed, like their treaties with other Native American tribes, that the agreement simply allowed the Continental troops free passage through Delaware country and the building of a protective fort for defending white settlers. However, the American government wanted the Delaware to do much more. The United States intended to use the fort for offensive campaigns and wrote into the treaty that the Delaware would attack their native neighbors. This way, the Delaware would be responsible for controlling the other native tribes so that the Continental and militia troops could focus on subduing British forces.

The treaty recognized the Delaware as a sovereign nation, guaranteeing territorial rights, even encouraging the other Ohio Country Native American tribes who were friendly to the United States to form a state. A member of Delaware leadership would represent the Delaware state in Congress. This measure had little chance of success, and some experts believe that the authors of the treaty were dishonest and deceitful. Others believe that the Delaware chief White Eyes proposed the measure. The Delaware state was to become the fourteenth state of the United States. In any case, neither the United States nor the Delaware acted upon this measure.

Delaware Grievances

Before a year passed, the Delaware Indians expressed grievances with the treaty. A Delaware delegation visited Philadelphia in 1779 to voice their dissatisfaction to the Continental Congress, but nothing changed and peace between the United States and the Delaware Indians dissolved.

Of the members who signed the treaty on September 17, 1778, White Eyes, the tribe’s most outspoken ally of the United States, died in mysteriously. Initially the official army report stated that White Eyes died of smallpox on an expedition to attack Detroit, but upon farther investigation, an officer killed him in “friendly fire”. The stated reason for the cover-up was an attempt to keep the Delaware from seeking revenge for his death.
The Pipe had tried to stay neutral throughout the American Revolution even after General Edward Hand killed his mother, brother, and several of his children during a military campaign in 1778. Because Hand did not know the difference between the Native American tribes, he mistook the neutral Lenape for the Shawnee who allied with the British, so he attacked hoping to reduce Indian threats against settlers in the Ohio Country. When Pipe and other Lenape leaders protested the US interpretation of the treaty, General Lachlan McIntosh demanded that Lenape warriors assist the Americans in capturing Fort Detroit. If they refused, he would exterminate them. Pipe and other leaders left the Fort Pitt area and relocated to the Walhonding River near what is now Coshocton, Ohio.

Many Lenape joined the war against the Americans. In response, Colonel Daniel Brodhead led an expedition out of Fort Pitt on April 19, 1781, which destroyed Coshocton. Surviving residents fled to the north. The soldiers left the Lenape at the Moravian mission villages unmolested because they were Christianized and considered non-combatants.

Due to indiscriminate American attacks against the Lenape during the war, chiefs of several clans switched to ally with the British. After being pushed out as principal chief, the Pipe led an American attack on a major Lenape town, and then retreated to Fort Pitt. After the war, he converted to Christianity at a Moravian mission in Salem, Ohio, where he took the Christian name of “William Henry.”

The Lenape after the American Revolution

Pipe’s neutrality ended in 1781 when Colonel Daniel Brodhead attacked and destroyed Pipe’s village. He moved his people to the Tymochtee Creek near the Sandusky River. This village became known as Pipe’s Town. Captain Pipe spent the rest of the American Revolution resisting American expansion into the Ohio Country. He helped defeat the Crawford Expedition in 1782 headed by William Crawford, and Crawford was ritually tortured and then killed. After the Revolution, Pipe continued resistance efforts against white settlements in what the US called the Northwest Territory.
Over time, Pipe realized the futility of his attempts to defeat the Americans. so he negotiated treaties with the government. These treaties did nothing to limit the number of settlers who moved onto lands the American government reserved for the Lenape. Time after time, the Lenape moved only to be moved again when settlers wanted to settle on Lenape lands.
In 1812, the Lenape moved west again and the government moved them yet again in 1821. No one knows exactly where Chief Pipe died. Some say that he died in 1818 near Orestes; others say somewhere in Canada. His son also called Captain Pipe signed many treaties and moved with the tribe to Kansas.
Today, the tribe is organized west of the Mississippi. They have an official newspaper based out of Bartlesville, Oklahoma. The Delaware Indian News is the official publication of the Delaware Tribe of Indians. It is published by the Delaware Tribe and mailed free to tribal members. Check it out here http://delawaretribe.org/delaware-indian-news/

The Locket Saga

The Locket Saga 5 books
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little africa 5

If the land could talk, it would tell us about the people who lived here. It would tell you about the Erie, how they lived and how they died.

Last fall I saw that November was not only the National Novel Writing Month, but it was also Native American History Month. Since I did Black History Month in February, I thought that it was only right that I should also commemorate Native Americans this month.

I decided to start with Native Americans who used to live in the area where I grew up. I was born and raised in Northwestern Pennsylvania where the Erie Indians resided when the only white men in the area were a few French Jesuits. Several years ago I wrote an article on Hubpages called Whatever happened to the Erie Indians. Here’s a link if you’d like to read it. https://hubpages.com/education/What-Ever-Happened-to-the-Erie-Indians
This week, I am again honoring the Erie Indians.

What Do We Know about the Erie?

According to the History of Erie County Pennsylvania written In the 1880s, The State Library of Pennsylvania at Harrisburg had two ancient French maps. One of them was printed in 1763 and the other in 1768 and both maps show geographical features of parts of the US and Canada. Both represent the southern shore of Lake Erie as peopled with a tribe of Native Americans known as the Erie. A note in the margin of each reads, “The ancient Erie were exterminated by the Iroquois about one hundred years ago, and every since then they (the Iroquois) have been in possession of Lake Erie.”

On the earlier map the following is printed on the lake between what is now Cleveland and Sandusky. “The seat of war, the mart of trade, and chief hunting grounds of the six Nations on the lakes and the Ohio.”

This information is related to a French book published in 1703 which described the voyages of Le Baron de Lahonton an adventurous Frenchman who lived for ten years among the Indians from 1683-1693.

“The shores of Lake Erie,” he said, “are frequented by the Iroquois, the Illinois, the Oumanies, among others who are so savage that it is dangerous to stop with them.”

Frequent reference is also made in the letters and memoirs of Frenchmen -who visited this section, to the Flatheads, who would seem to have been settled somewhere south or west of the lake. All the authorities agreed that the date of the extermination of the Erie was somewhere about 1650. Most early historians claim that the word Erie was the Indian expression for wild cat, but a more recent writer contends that ” this is a mistake, that it does not mean wild cat, but raccoon. Raccoons were (and still are) abundant upon the lake shore while wild cats are seldom seen.”

A French memoir, written in 1718, relates that one island in the upper part of the lake was infested to so great an extent by wild cats, that ” the Indians killed as many as 900 of them in a very short time.” It is possible that the French explorers, from whom the supposed meaning of the word has descended to us, mistook raccoons for wild cats.
Students of Native American history believe that the tribe was at one time considerably ahead of the other tribes in progress and intellect.

Records show that French missionaries visited the Erie were visited by French missionaries as early as 1626. They claimed that the Erie were a neutral nation among the other more warlike tribes in the area. These Native Americans were governed by a queen, called in their own language, Yagowania, and in the Seneca tongue, Gegosasa. She was regarded as “the mother of nations,” and her office was that of “keeper of the symbolic house of peace.” The chief warrior of the tribe was Ragnotha, who had his principal location at Tu-shu-way, now the site of Buffalo, New York.

The End of the Erie

The Erie stayed neutral until 1634, when a bloody dissension broke out between the several branches of the Iroquois. During its progress two Seneca warriors appeared at Gegosasa’s lodge and were hospitably received. They were preparing to smoke the peace pipe when a deputation of Massassaugues was announced, who demanded vengeance for the murder of their chief’s son at the hands of the Seneca.

The queen granted the request promptly. She set out with a large body of warriors to enforce her decree, and dispatched messengers to Ragnotha to command his assistance. The visiting Seneca flew to their friends to notify them of the queen’s course, and a body of men hastily gathered in ambush on the road upon which her army traveled. The Erie did not know about the presence of the Seneca until the Erie heard their war-whoop. The Erie were ambushed. At first the queen’s forces gained the advantage, but the Seneca rallied and the Erie fled, leaving behind 600 dead. There are no accounts of any further hostilities at that time and the Queen did not appear to enforce her plan to avenge the grievances of the Massassaugues.

The war where the Erie were exterminated by the Iroquois occurred around 1650 and was one of the cruelest in history. From the beginning, both sides understood that one tribe or the other would be completely obliterated. The Erie organized a powerful body of warriors and hoped to ambush the Seneca in their own territory. A woman secretly alerted the Seneca of the Erie plan. The Seneca raised a force and marched to meet the invaders. The Seneca were completely victorious. Seven times the Erie crossed the stream that divided the hostile lines, but they were driven back with terrible losses.
At a later date, several hundred Iroquois attacked nearly three times their number of Erie, encamped near the mouth of French Creek, dispersed them, took many prisoners, and forced the rest to flee to remote regions.

In a battle near the site of the Cattauraugas Indian mission house, on the Allegheny River, the loss of the Erie was enormous. Finally, a disease broke out among the Erie, which “swept away greater numbers even than the club and arrow.” The Iroquois took advantage of their opportunity to end all fear of future trouble from the ill-fated Erie. Those who had been taken captive were, with rare exceptions, remorselessly butchered, and their wives and children were made slaves to the Iroquois villages. The few survivors “fled to distant regions in the West and South and had undying hatred the Seneca. Their council fire had been put out, and their name and language as a tribe lost.”
Sculptures and embankments on Kelly’s Island, in the upper end of the lake, was probably the last stronghold of the Erie. Traces of the tribe were occasionally found by the French Jesuits aw they wandered through the western wilderness. A number were living as slaves among the Onondagas of New York. They appealed to the missionaries to help them escape, but the French refused their requests. An early French writer described the Christian village of La Prairie and said that a portion of the settlement was made up of fugitive Erie.

How does this Tribe Relate to the Locket Saga?

The Locket Saga 5 books
In the Locket Saga series, I make no mention of the Erie because they were long gone by the time of the series. However, in The Anvil (Book VI), Luke mentions that the Erie had at one time lived in the area where they were moving.

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skeleton in chains

I mentioned in one of my earlier posts that I have been doing some research in a book called the History of Erie County, Pennsylvania (written in 1884) one of the things that I found interesting was idea that before the Native Americans lived in the area, there had been another group of people who lived in North America.

The Erie County Connection

According to The History of Erie county, there had been many indications that proved conclusively that the county had once been peopled by these giants. When the railroad link of the Erie and Pittsburgh Railroad from the Lake Shore road to the dock at Erie was being built, the workers dug into a great mass of bones at the crossing of the public road which ran by the rolling mill. From the way the bones were thrown together, the workers surmised that a terrible battle had taken place in the area.

The skulls had been flattened, and the foreheads were seldom more than an inch wide. The bodies were in a sitting posture, and there were no traces that garments, weapons or ornaments had been buried with them.

Because of superstitious ideas among the workers, none of the skeletons were preserved, the entire collection was thrown into an embankment down the road. Later, when the Philadelphia and Erie road passed through the Warfel farm was widened, another deposit of bones was dug up and disposed of as they had done previously. Among the skeletons was a giant who was buried among smaller skeletons. One was probably his wife. The arm and leg bones of this native American Goliath were about one-half longer than those of the tallest man’ among the workers. The giant’s skull was immensely large. The lower jawbone easily slipped over his face and the whiskers of a full-faced man, and the teeth were in a perfect state of preservation. Another skeleton was dug up in Conneaut Township some years ago was equally remarkable in its dimensions. As in the other instance, a comparison was made with the largest man in the neighborhood, and the jawbone readily covered his face, while the lower bone of the leg was nearly a foot longer than his. This indicated that the man must have been eight to ten feet tall. The bones of another flat head turned up in the same township in 1882 with a huge skull. Relics of a former time have been gathered in that area. Among them was a brass watch that was as big as a common saucer.

In 1820, on the land of Doctors Clark and Dickenson, they found an ancient graveyard. Doctor Albert Thayer dug up some of the bones, and he indicated that it was a race of beings of immense side.

Giants Found Elsewhere

Many other places in the world have indicated the same idea that there at one time giants who lived in these various parts of the world. The Bible even mentions these people among them were the Anakin and the Nephilim. We also have the well-known story of Goliath who was of similar height of the skeletons found in these accounts from Erie County. Perhaps other connection exists.


twitter logo

About three months ago I started something new that has been going well for me. What I am doing is promoting the concept of Write a Review Sunday. I started doing this on twitter and every Sunday I encourage others to write reviews of the most recent book they read.

Here’s what I’m doing on Twitter-getting it out there that there is a movement to get people to write reviews of books that they have recently read. I write several tweets every day promoting the idea.

Next, I follow my own advice and write a review of a book that I recently read and put it either Amazon or Goodreads. I then promote on twitter and include the hashtag #WriteaReviewSunday. It is as simple as that.

Next I go to #WriteaReviewSunday and retweet other reviews of other author books and go and check out the reviews of those books. I also check out the authors of those books and let them know that I am willing to read their books (pdf or free on kindle or on Kindle Unlimited) and then I write reviews for them.

Every Sunday, is review day for me and I haven’t missed one since the middle of June.
Promoting reviews of my own books.

If anyone has written a review of one of my books, I will do several things. First I will retweet the review and thank the author of the review for taking the time to do the review.

Second, if someone doesn’t do a #WriteaReviewSunday tweet of their review, I will include a link to their review on Amazon or Goodreads and thank them in a tweet.

Easier than Guest Blogging

In many ways, this way of connecting with reviewers and other authors is easier than doing it through guest blogging. The biggest way that it is easier to connect is that it is focused on just one day per week. I get on twitter and go down a list of things that I want to do and when it’s done it’s done.

The tweets that I am doing are live. I don’t preschedule these tweets. When I tweet live, I can respond to any live tweets that come back to me. I can respond to tweets with my phone.

It is easier than blogging because I get instant results. I know the responses that I am getting and how valuable they are to the people who are viewing them.

Follow-up later in the Week

Though the tweets are instant, and I only do it one day per week, that doesn’t mean that is all I do for the review process. I schedule time later in the week where I go back and click through the reviews to discover books that I would like to review myself. When I find one that I like, I contact the author and tell that person that I enjoyed the preview of their book, the review, and wanted to know if there was anyway that I could get a free copy of that book to review myself. I would also let the author know that I have KindleUnlimited and that I would not mind getting the book that way. (or since I had looked at the reviews anyway, I could just say whether I can use KindleUnlimited).
I would use my reading time to read the book and then put a review not only on Amazon or Goodreads, but also on my blog. (I try to go the extra mile.) I would also ask the author if he or she would like to read one of my books as well.

In addition, I would go through and contact the reviewer by private message and thank him or her for taking the time to write the review, posting it online and ask that person if he or she would like to read and review one of my books as well. I might even suggest which book I would like him or her to read.

I would follow on twitter and list those reviewers and authors that I have contacted and from whom I have received positive results and work into my schedule ways to connect with each of them on an even deeper level and perhaps share guest blogging with them.

How about you? How are you going the extra mile to help other authors?

 


newsstand

There are probably as many ways to promote indie books as there are indie authors. Here is what worked and didn’t work for me.

What Didn’t Work?

Many Different things I have done to promote my books didn’t work
I did a lot of things that many people suggested. First, I tried to give away my books on KDP select. It really didn’t work for me. The KDP count down was even more disappointing.

I had read that if I would just write my books and just keep putting out books I would gradually build up book sales. This didn’t work either. Instead of having one book that no one read, I had eleven.

I was also told to do book signings. They told me to do all that I could to promote those events. I did. Book signings at bookstores were totally unfruitful. I was told to get out on the radio and do podcasts. Isolated practice, those didn’t produce sales either.

I put one of my books out on click bank. That didn’t work either.

Advertising on Facebook or Twitter Ads doesn’t work either. Nor does adding my books to static online websites that take money for having my books on their sites. All that did was lighten my already near-empty pockets.

Book Promotion Tactics that Worked

Using memes on social media. Creating memes is fun. I am glad that Tierney James showed me this little trick for getting attention on Facebook and Twitter.

Write a Review Sunday (see next week’s post)

Social Media

My connections on twitter and LinkedIn seem far more fruitful than my connections on Facebook. My Facebook connections are more friends and family whereas LinkedIn and Twitter are more business associations.

On LinkedIn, I would say that my connections are relationships from the publishing arena whereas twitter are authors who help (and who I help back) with motivation and inspiration.

LinkedIn connected me with another author who I helped edit the first book in his series.

Press Releases to Local Markets

I write my own press releases for my local markets. I write them for where I live now, but I also write them for places where I used to live. I slant my press releases to the locals.
I learned to blitz my book launches with posters, press releases, radio talk shows, podcasts, in succession. Each one individually seemed to do little, but using several different approaches seemed to help get the word out better.

I recently started making a concerted effort to reach out to help other authors do their work. For instance, I recently completely edited another author’s book.

My Dream for the Future

Soon, I would like to include video training and do more podcasting with other writers. I would like to do more work for other authors as well. I have a lot of experience in editing and formatting books and I can see how I could develop a publishing business based on these specific talents. Plus, as I dig deeper into the marketing aspects of book publicity, I should be able to help authors in this capacity as well.

Finally, I would like to create a series of online courses that show wannabes how to become successful authors and entrepreneurs. The online courses would be from teaching how to structure a novel to hiring talented help where you need it to setting up an author business tools, to structuring your online platform, to planning out your day among other things.


The Locket Saga 5 books

Last spring, I told about some of the ideas that I have for the new book that I will be working on during NaNoWriMo next month. Here is where I am now in the process of getting ready to write the first draft. This process will actually happen next month, but recently I started developing some of the aspects of the book.

The Setting

One of the first things that I did was to start researching the period when this book takes place. One of the books that I used for this research is The History of Erie County written in 1884.

The Setting: The growing village of Erie, Pennsylvania during the War of 1812 as ships battle it out on the Great Lakes to determine who will be in control of the Great Lakes.

Meet the Main Characters

Earlier in the year I mentioned that I was thinking about the characters for this book. I have decided that the male antagonist needs to be Joseph McCray-the youngest son of Phillip McCray and Elizabeth Thorton McCray. In the story, I think Joseph will join the crew of the Brig Niagara and fights in the Naval battle during the War of 1812.

Joseph’s female love interest would be a girl named Amelia Robbison- A girl who lives in the fledgling town of Erie Pennsylvania.

I think in this book, I am going to give Joseph a run for his money. I am giving this book an antagonist named Clive Gibbons. He’ll be another young man vying for Amelia’s attention. He will be a militia soldier stationed at Fort Erie. What chance does Joseph have with Amelia when Clive is with her every day.

Meet Some of the Secondary Characters

Jonathan Mayford returns as a secondary character in this book. If you remember, he was a sailor during the Revolution, (He was the protagonist in Sailing Under the Black Flag) In 1812, he assists Perry in building the ships for the US Navy at the Erie ship yard.

Another character is Robert McCray, Jr. I picture him in the opening scene-Robert McCray and Judith McCray’s son-he sees the Indians coming. Will they be friend or foe? Robert was born in 1804. This would put him at about eight years old.

Another character is the Seneca Chief Cornplanter. If you remember, he made a cameo in The Locket Saga Book VI: The Anvil. In this book he will make another. Will he take the side of the British during this conflict as he did during the American Revolution? If so, what did it mean to the friendship between him and the settlers at the Concord settlement?

The Main Plot: The main plot, of course, revolves around a love story between Joseph and his love interest Amelia. It looks as if we have a love triangle going on this one with another young man Clive Gibbons. Will the story bring about a situation like happened in The Anvil with Robert where Lydia shunned him or will Joseph have better luck? Will Amelia get the heirloom locket?  Joseph is part of the naval battles on one of the American ships during the battle. Will Amelia turn to Clive’s affections while Joseph is out at sea?

Historical Events I Plan to Include

One of the big Naval heroes of the War of 1812 was Oliver Hazard Perry-real historical figure. When I was growing up, Dad used to take us to local museums that centered much around Perry’s Naval service. I look forward to reliving some of the experiences that I had back in my childhood.

In addition, the future ninth President of the United States, William Henry Harrison- went to Erie, where he met up with Perry at Erie and went on to Buffalo, NY. (Harrison would become the US President in 1841.)

My First Attempt at Doing a YouTube Video

I know that this isn’t about Book IX of the Locket Saga, but is about the first book: When God Turned His Head. Eventually I will include more YouTube videos and I know this one isn’t very good. However, it is a start. Please let me know what you think of this.

 


teacher with a gun

In recent months, far too many times, another school shooter has wreaked havoc on schools across the country. Children (and many teachers) fear for their lives every day that on this might be the day that it could be their own school that is attacked. Many of the politicians seem to think that arming the teachers with guns might be the best solution.

But is bringing a gun into a classroom the best solution? There are a lot of reasons bringing another gun into the situation might not be best. For instance, where does a teacher keep a gun in the classroom?

On his or her person? Not a good idea in my opinion. The student doesn’t have to bring a gun into the classroom. The gun is already there. All the disgruntled student has to do now is distract and disarm the teacher and the gun is his.

Locked in a desk? Sure. During a stressful situation, a teacher must get the gun out of his or her desk and abandon the frightened students in his or her charge to go after the student.

In an unlocked desk? I don’t think so. Again, it is easy for a student to distract the teacher and get the gun out of the unlocked desk.

And even if the teacher has a gun and knows how to use it, can this teacher face down a student that they probably had in class and shoot the student? It is different for a military person to shoot someone that he or she doesn’t know than it is for a teacher (who is by nature a nurturer) to endanger the life of a student (or former student).
I really don’t believe that putting the gun into the hands of a teacher is the best solution.

Another Solution to the Crisis

Here’s what I feel would be a better solution. First, create federal legislation that hold adults responsible for all weapons that are in their legal possession. The parents should be held responsible to keep their guns under lock and key.

Second, federally paid for public service announcements explaining what can and should be done for students showing signs that an individual student is in mental and emotional distress. In addition, other public service announcements reminding parents to keep their guns out of the hands of anyone under 21 unless directly supervised by an adult. (This includes hunting).

Finally, I propose that teachers be trained on how to distract and disarm a disgruntled student in much the same manner that Jason Seaman did when he threw the basketball and rushed the student in May in Noblesville, Indiana. I believe that this training should be paid for through federal and state grants.

What Can YOU do about it?

I have always believed that if you’re not part of the solution, you are part of the problem. So, let me share what you can do to better protect school students. Whether you are for or against gun control is not the issue here. What I am suggesting has nothing to do with limiting the right to bear arms. If you agree (or disagree for that matter) I would love for you to share your comment below.

In addition, I would like you to take it one step further. Contact your state and federal representatives and tell them to cut out the partisan politics. This isn’t about gun control. Next, share this link to this post to your social media, contact your local news outlets and let them know that you care about protecting our country’s children.

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